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Aluminum Foil Manufacturing Process I-Refining Aluminum

2016-07-11

Aluminum numbers among the most abundant elements: after oxygen and silicon, it is the most plentiful element found in the earth's surface, making up over eight percent of the crust to a depth of ten miles and appearing in almost every common rock. However, aluminum does not occur in its pure, metallic form, but rather as hydrated aluminum oxide (a mixture of water and alumina) combined with silica, iron oxide, and titania.

In general, the most significant aluminum foil ore is bauxite, named after the French town of Les Baux where it was discovered in 1821. Bauxite contains iron and hydrated aluminum oxide, with the latter representing its largest constituent material. At present, bauxite is plentiful enough so that only deposits with an aluminum oxide content of forty-five percent or more are mined to make aluminum. Concentrated deposits are found in both the northern and southern hemispheres, with most of the ore used in the United States coming from the West Indies, North America, and Australia.

In addition, since bauxite occurs so close to the earth's surface, mining procedures are relatively simple. Explosives are used to open up large pits in bauxite beds, after which the top layers of dirt and rock are cleared away. The exposed ore is then removed with front end loaders, piled in trucks or railroad cars, and transported to processing plants. Bauxite is heavy (generally, one ton of aluminum can be produced from four to six tons of the ore), so, to reduce the cost of transporting it, these plants are often situated as close as possible to the bauxite mines.

Well, extracting pure aluminum from bauxite usually entails two processes. First, the ore is refined to eliminate impurities such as iron oxide, silica, titania, and water. Then, the resultant aluminum oxide is smelted to produce pure aluminum. After that, the aluminum is rolled to produce foil.

Refining—Bayer process

The Bayer process used to refine bauxite comprises four steps: digestion, clarification, precipitation, and calcination. During the digestion stage, the bauxite is ground and mixed with sodium hydroxide before being pumped into large, pressurized tanks. In these tanks, called digesters, the combination of sodium hydroxide, heat, and pressure breaks the ore down into a saturated solution of sodium aluminate and insoluble contaminants, which settle to the bottom.

The next phase of the process, clarification, entails sending the solution and the contaminants through a set of tanks and presses. During this stage, cloth filters trap the contaminants, which are then disposed of. After being filtered once again, the remaining solution is transported to a cooling tower.

In the next stage, precipitation, the aluminum oxide solution moves into a large silo, where, in an adaptation of the Deville method, the fluid is seeded with crystals of hydrated aluminum to promote the formation of aluminum particles. As the seed crystals attract other crystals in the solution, large clumps of aluminum hydrate begin to form. These are first filtered out and then rinsed.

Calcination, the final step in the Bayer refinement process, entails exposing the aluminum hydrate to high temperatures. This extreme heat dehydrates the material, leaving a residue of fine white powder: aluminum oxide.